Nanyang technological university: thesis validates use of bessel beams in laser-based 3d printing
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Nanyang Technological College: Thesis Validates Use of Bessel Beams in Laser-Based mostly 3D Printing

Andy Wen Loong Liew has submitted a thesis, ‘Laser-based 3D printing utilizing bessel beams for tissue engineering functions’ to Nanyang Technological College. Exploring a brand new method for bioprinting, Liew research using Bessel beams in reference to regenerative drugs methods, and he additionally compares the advantages of conventional methods.

Liew cites the advantages of Bessel beams (BB) in reference to 3D printing and customizing hydrogels, contemplating the next:

Straightforward customization of assemble structure
Lowered fabrication time
Excessive print decision
Capacity to manufacture excessive facet ratio tubular constructions with anatomic relevance (and no helps)

This examine additionally includes using collagen gel for improved success in sustaining cells and inducing endothelial sprouting.

Liew reminds us that the last word aim in tissue engineering is to start 3D printing organs which are viable for transplant into people; on the way in which, nevertheless, engineers have used a variety of supplies with personalized and software program to start engineering pores and skin, cartilage, bone, and way more.

“The aforementioned tissues which have efficiently made the transition are avascular which makes them simpler to engineer in comparison with vascular tissues corresponding to coronary heart and kidney tissue that are extra advanced,” states Liew.

Rules of tissue engineering. (Adopted from ref.[12]).

Liew asserts that to date there have been no research of BB printing methods revealed. Benefits and challenges are mentioned concerning the brand new method. A lot of the work offered within the chapter 2 literary overview is predicated on the next publication: Liew, Andy Wen Loong, and Yilei Zhang. ‘In vitro pre-vascularization methods for tissue-engineered constructs – Bioprinting and others.’ Worldwide Journal of Bioprinting (2017) Three Three-17. There, Liew describes vascularization, using in vitro fashions, and present in vitro vascularization approaches like bioprinting, microfluidics (lithography), micropatterning, wire molding, and cell sheet engineering.
Nanyang Technological College: Thesis Validates Use of Bessel Beams in Laser-Based mostly 3D Printing

Microfluidic expertise used to engineer microvascular networks inside 3D tissue scaffolds for functions in vascular tissue modeling. Scale bars: 100μm. (Adopted from ref.[91]).

Nanyang Technological College: Thesis Validates Use of Bessel Beams in Laser-Based mostly 3D Printing

Wire molding method employed to manufacture perfusable 3D microvascular tubes inside microporous cell-laden hydrogels to supply biomimetic tissue constructs. (Adopted from ref.[110]).

Nanyang Technological College: Thesis Validates Use of Bessel Beams in Laser-Based mostly 3D Printing

Cell sheet expertise mixed with a collagen based mostly perfusion bioreactor for the preservation of cell viability by the vascularization of 3D tissues. (Adopted from ref.[122] URL: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep01316).

For the needs of experimenting inside this examine, Liew makes it clear that whereas little or no consideration could have been paid to BBs in additive manufacturing processes, they’re engaging attributable to a non-diffracting core that isn’t solely extremely localized but in addition presents excessive depth.

“This excessive depth BB core is the results of constructive interference of the beam after exiting the axicon. Not like centered Gaussian beams, the excessive depth BB core extends all through the size of the non-diffracting zone whereas retaining its extremely localized profile,” states Liew. “Thus by exposing a pre-polymer resolution to the BB core, an extended fiber-like construction may be produced via a single publicity because the excessive depth BB core propagates via your entire top of the answer.”

Nanyang Technological College: Thesis Validates Use of Bessel Beams in Laser-Based mostly 3D Printing

(a) Utilizing an Axicon lens to supply a BB from an incident Gaussian Beam. (b) BB profile with prolonged depth of discipline, showcasing excessive depth, non-diffracting core. (c) Focussed Gaussian Beam profile exhibiting small voxel of excessive depth, as in comparison with BB profile. (Adopted from ref.[130]).

A lot of the dialogue concerning using BBs additionally stems from Liew’s earlier analysis, drawn from Liew, Wen Loong Andy, and Yilei Zhang. ‘Laser-based fabrication of 3D hydrogel constructs utilizing Bessel beams.’ Bioprinting (2018) 9 44-51.

The researchers 3D printed at room temperature, counting on a vat full of pre-polymer resolution, ‘positioned on the interpretation stage,’ and centered on the BB propagation axis. Print settings have been optimized as follows for all samples fabricated within the examine: Laser energy = 120µW, Magnification (M) = 1 (discuss with Part 5.2.2), translational velocity of stage = 1mm/s.

Nanyang Technological College: Thesis Validates Use of Bessel Beams in Laser-Based mostly 3D Printing

(a) Schematic diagram of optical set-up, laser propagation, and manipulation. Dotted purple line signifies the BB. (b) Precise experimental set-up. Cyan arrows point out the Gaussian beam whereas purple arrows point out the BB.

Nanyang Technological College: Thesis Validates Use of Bessel Beams in Laser-Based mostly 3D Printing

Mechanism for the fabrication of hydrogel constructs. Publicity of the pre-polymer resolution to the BB ends in localized crosslinking. Translational stage movement coupled with BB publicity ends in the crosslinking of customizable hydrogel constructs

The researchers famous that 3D printing time of samples was ‘considerably decreased’ as they in contrast outcomes with typical strategies; actually, with BB, the common printing time was decreased to a powerful 20 seconds—reflecting a financial savings of greater than 50 p.c.

“Encapsulation of fluorescent beads (simulating cells) throughout the tube partitions was additionally efficiently demonstrated with this method as a proof-of-concept for subsequent chapters the place the printing method shall be used for direct cell encapsulation,” acknowledged Liew.

“Lastly, 3D hydrogel scaffolds with managed microscale options and in-built microchannels have been fabricated with each naturally-derived and artificial polymers utilizing the BB method, showcasing its superior print decision in comparison with typical printing methods and adaptability. General, the method displayed sturdy potential to be utilized within the discipline of TE in future.”

In utilizing BBs for tissue engineering, the next properties ought to proceed to be evaluated:

Limitations in design complexity
Multi-material, multi-cellular assemble printing
Variances in printing time for assemble designs
Long run results on cell phenotype/genotype from UV publicity
Flexibility of programs in ‘tuning’ decision
Structural non-conformity to unique design

“ … there are a number of drawbacks to utilizing the BB method for bioprinting functions together with wall thinning and restricted design complexity,” concluded Liew. “Future work ought to embrace a balanced analysis of how the proposed 111 BB printing method compares to established, commercially out there bioprinting programs as a way to set up it as a viable different to present expertise.”

3D printing has had an infinite influence on tissue engineering lately, as researchers create new supplies and constructions like scaffolds, enhance hydrogel microenvironments, refine bioprinting for bone regeneration, and rather more.

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