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College of Maryland: 3D Printing Honeycomb Buildings with Buckling Initiators for Crash Mitigation

In the case of 3D print infill, honeycomb constructions are typically probably the most environment friendly, maximizing cupboard space and minimizing essential materials. Analysis additionally exhibits that the honeytube, a novel type of the honeycomb construction, may present 3D printed objects with glorious power absorption.

Lately, Rachel Harvey, Norman M. Wereley, PhD, and Min Mao, PhD, researchers within the College of Maryland‘s Composites Analysis Laboratory (CORE) within the Division of Aerospace Engineering, revealed a paper, titled “Growth of 3D Printed Honeycombs for Crash Mitigation Functions,” that takes a better take a look at the construction, and why its mechanical properties make it “splendid for utilization in crash mitigation, notably for helicopters and cars.”

College of Maryland: 3D Printing Honeycomb Buildings with Buckling Initiators for Crash Mitigation

30 mm tall honeycombs proven with diamond-shape vertex buckling initiators (L) crushed in-plane, and diamond-shape face buckling initiators (R) crushed within the out-of-plane course

“At present, when crushed by a dynamic load, there’s an impulse in power previous to a gradual absorption – which may very well be detrimental in such crash mitigation functions. On this examine, 3D printed honeycombs are investigated for subsequent crush effectivity with quasi-static and dynamic crush exams,” the researchers wrote within the summary. “3D printing, somewhat than standard manufacturing, permits for structural modifications inside the honeycomb that affect its force-displacement profile. Buckling initiators on the face and/or vertex of honeycombs ought to scale back the preliminary peak stress and improve the pressure at which densification, the purpose at which the stress as soon as once more will increase, begins.”

College of Maryland: 3D Printing Honeycomb Buildings with Buckling Initiators for Crash Mitigation

30 mm tall honeycombs with .65 mm diamond-shaped face buckling initiators

The objective was to design and fabricate 3D printed honeycombs with each diamond-shaped and round buckling initiators, which they discovered will “lower the preliminary peak stress of examined honeycombs.” They used a uPrint SE system to 3D print the honeycombs out of ABSplus filament, with 1 mm cell wall thickness, stable infill, and standing 30 mm tall.

College of Maryland: 3D Printing Honeycomb Buildings with Buckling Initiators for Crash Mitigation

30 mm tall honeycomb with diamond-shape vertex buckling initiators (L) and diamond-shape face buckling initiators (R)

First, with a purpose to discover the power absorption and crush effectivity, they examined the in-plane course for the honeycomb constructions.

Then, the 3D printed honeycombs had been examined on their out-of-plane properties on a 20,000 lb MTS machine, “for comparability with Gibson and Ashby equations and former knowledge.” They positioned the honeycomb between two compression platens on the machine, “with a displacement of .zero02in/sec, .02in/sec, .2in/sec, and 2in/sec.” They raised the platens 1″ above the samples earlier than the dynamic testing started, which was captured with a high-speed digital camera so they may correctly doc the crush testing of the constructions.

College of Maryland: 3D Printing Honeycomb Buildings with Buckling Initiators for Crash Mitigation

L-R: 20,000 lb MTS machine out-of-plane testing configuration, and diamond-shaped face and vertex buckling initiator crushed at .2in/sec

They discovered that the 2 kinds of buckling initiators positively influenced the 3D printed honeycomb constructions’ stress-strain curves – that means their power absorption was splendid. You’ll be able to see this mirrored within the tables beneath.

“Preliminary peak stress has proven to lower with the implementation of buckling initiators, together with later factors of densification,” the researchers concluded.

College of Maryland: 3D Printing Honeycomb Buildings with Buckling Initiators for Crash Mitigation

The resultant stress-strain curve from out-of-plane face and vertex diamond buckling initiators shows a minimized preliminary peak stress in any respect crush charges, with vital variation within the densification factors for crush speeds of .2 in/sec and a couple of in/sec.

College of Maryland: 3D Printing Honeycomb Buildings with Buckling Initiators for Crash Mitigation

The resultant stress-strain curve from out-of-plane testing on 30 mm tall honeycombs with 5 mm face and/or vertex round buckling initiators shows that round face and vertex buckling initiators carried out the perfect at lowering the preliminary peak stress. The examined buckling initiators had comparable densification factors.

College of Maryland: 3D Printing Honeycomb Buildings with Buckling Initiators for Crash Mitigation

The resultant stress-strain curve from out-of-plane testing on 30 mm tall honeycombs with 5 mm diamond buckling initiators on the face and/or vertex signifies that at a crush of .2in/sec, face and vertex buckling initiators enormously decreased the preliminary peak stress in comparison with honeycombs with solely face or vertex buckling initiators.

The researchers will proceed their work on power absorption of 3D printed honeycomb constructions.

“Future instructions for the challenge embody testing honeycombs of different supplies with buckling initiators, and the implementation of variations of present buckling initiator designs,” they concluded.

They plan on testing honeycombs made with totally different supplies, like foam and aluminum, with buckling initiators; testing totally different cell-designs, equivalent to a flower petal; and conducting drop exams on 3D printed honeycombs utilizing a high-speed digital camera. As well as, they may also hold testing the honeycombs they beforehand designed with a purpose to evaluate the effectivity of those designs with the brand new ones.

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