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Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

A posh tibial plateau fracture, primarily brought on by high-energy accidents, impacts the knee and usually means the individual is unable to stroll. If that isn’t onerous sufficient, every kind of problems can occur if the fracture doesn’t heal proper, like joint deformity, wound an infection, and traumatic arthritis. If allowed to turn into an previous fracture, it’s tougher for orthopedic surgeons to repair. So pre-operative surgical planning is fairly vital. For essentially the most half, CT and X-ray photos are used, however 3D printing can be utilized to realize higher customized plate fixation. 4 researchers from Henan Orthopedic Hospital in China hypothesized that utilizing a 3D printed mannequin in pre-operative simulation may assist enhance the outcomes of advanced and previous tibial plateau fracture surgical procedure, and scale back the general operation time.

The crew wrote in regards to the outcomes of their examine in a paper, “Pre-operative simulation utilizing a three-dimensional printing mannequin for surgical therapy of previous and complicated tibial plateau fractures.”

“Thus, the purpose of the examine was to check the outcomes between sufferers handled with and with out the help of the 3D printed fashions and to guage the feasibility and effectiveness of 3D printing mannequin simulation for preoperative planning,” they wrote.

There are a number of benefits to utilizing 3D printed fashions in pre-operative simulation:

It helps surgeons perceive the morphology of fracture collapse and fragments to find out the fitting surgical strategy
The right plate could be chosen and formed upfront, together with the size, course, and fixation place of the screw
Surgeons can convey the mannequin into the OR and use it throughout the operation to enhance effectivity
Remedy plans could be extra simply mentioned with sufferers and create a greater doctor-patient relationship

Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

The researchers reviewed 42 sufferers with previous and complicated tibial plateau fractures over the course of 4 years. All of them had verified previous tibial plateau fractures and a fancy fracture of kind IV, V, or VI, and their pre-op planning was based mostly on a 3D printed mannequin or 3D-CT photos.

“There have been 27 males and 15 females with a imply age of 42.93 ± 7.69 years (ranged from 29 to 55 years). Imply physique mass index (BMI) was 23.98 ± 5.08 kg/m2 (ranged from 20.76 to 28.04 kg/m2). The best knee was concerned in 24 instances and the left knee in 18 instances,” the researchers defined. “Seventeen sufferers have been brought on by falling from top, 15 by visitors accident, and ten by different damage. The imply time from admission to hospital to surgical procedure was 25.83 ± 5.15 days (ranged from 21 to 40 days).”

Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

A 45-year-old feminine affected person with an previous & advanced tibial plateau fracture. (a) Preoperative X-ray movie exhibiting the left tibial comminuted fracture (kind V). (b) 3D-CT photos of the fracture.

They have been divided into two teams: whether or not their pre-op planning was based mostly on 3D-CT photos (standard planning group) or 3D printed equal-ratio fracture fashions (planning with 3D printing group). For the second group, the tibia and fibular have been scanned “from the distal a part of the fracture to the tibial plateau floor,” and the CT knowledge was imported into Materialise Mimics to construct the 3D digital mannequin.

Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

3D reconstruction of the previous & advanced tibial plateau fracture in Mimics software program v10.01. (a) Entire view of the knee joint (blue, femoral condyle; different colours characterize completely different fragment of tibial plateau fracture). (b) Anterior, (c) medial, (d) posterior, (e) lateral, and (f) cross-sectional views of fracture.

The patient-specific fracture fashions have been printed with PLA. It was straightforward to see the structural traits of the fractures, which helped in designing the surgical plan, and the surgeon simulated the “steps for the discount and fixation of the fragments” on the fashions forward of time.

Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

3D printing mannequin with a 1:1 ratio of the unique tibial plateau fracture for pre-operative analysis. (a) Anterior, (b) medial, (c) posterior, and (d) cross-sectional views.

The orientation, kind, location, and size of the screws have been recorded after plate fixation on the fashions, so the knowledge could possibly be used throughout surgical procedure. The 3D printed mannequin of the unique fracture and the one “after discount and fixation utilizing plates and screws” have been additionally used within the OR.

Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

In vitro simulated discount and plate fixation have been carried out on 3D printed mannequin. (a) Anterior view of the mannequin exhibiting lateral and medial plate fixation. (b) Medial view exhibiting medial and posterior plate fixation.

Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

Fig. 5: (c) Posterior view exhibiting posteromedial and lateral plate fixation. (d) Plates and screw size have been decided and recorded.

The blood loss, variety of fluoroscopy, and length have been recorded for all of the operations; in the event you’re within the specifics, try the analysis paper. All the operations have been carried out by the identical orthopedic crew with one senior orthopedic physician: co-author Dr. Honglue Tan. Allogeneic and autogenous bone grafts have been implanted into the bone defects if needed, and incisions have been closed after a “passable fracture discount and fixation underneath “C” arm X-ray fluoroscopy.”

Put up-op rehab started as soon as the sufferers recovered from anesthesia, and passive and lively flexion and extension of the knee joint began ASAP. Two weeks post-op, the sufferers may use a crutch to assist in “ambulation with out weight-bearing,” after which, relying on how their fracture was therapeutic, they may start partial and full weight-bearing. Comply with-up appointments occurred at one, three, six, and twelve months, after which yearly.

Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

(a) Put up-op X-ray exhibiting passable fracture discount and inside fixation, which have been in line with the pre-op simulation. (b) X-ray at 14 months post-op exhibiting bone-union with no implant displacement or joint floor collapse. (c) X-ray at 6 months post-op after plate removing exhibiting regular form and construction of tibial plateau. (d) This affected person had passable knee perform with an HSS rating of 85.

The standard of fracture discount and problems, resembling poor incision therapeutic,  implant failure, deep venous thrombosis, and bone nonunion, have been recorded at follow-up appointments, and the hospital used a particular surgical procedure (HSS) scoring system to guage knee perform; a rating of ≥ 85 factors is superb, whereas 70-84 is nice, 60-69 is truthful, and ≤59 factors is poor. SPSS statistical software program was used to investigate the outcomes for the examine.

“The operation time, blood loss and the variety of fluoroscopy throughout operation within the planning with 3D printing group have been lower than that within the standard planning group (P < zero.01),” the researchers defined.

“The speed of fantastic fracture discount within the planning with 3D printing group and standard planning group was 75% and 45.45%, respectively (P = zero.05). The complication price was 15% within the planning with 3D printing group and 31.82% within the standard planning group. On the closing follow-up analysis, the imply HSS rating was 86.05 ± 7.67 within the planning with 3D printing group and 79.09 ± 6.75 within the standard planning group (P = zero.003). The speed of fantastic ends in the planning with 3D printing group was 70% and within the standard planning group was 45.45% (P = zero.zero83).”

Can a 3D Printed Mannequin Enhance the Consequence of Advanced Tibial Plateau Fracture Surgical procedure?

These outcomes present that a patient-specific, 3D printed stable mannequin of the fracture, “with an equal ratio to the precise fracture,” will help surgeons within the pre-operative strategy planning stage. The surgeons taking part on this examine have been capable of precisely discover, and file, “the discount steps of the fragments, placement and pre-reshaping of the plates, and the measurement of the screw size” utilizing the 3D printed mannequin throughout pre-op surgical simulation. Moreover, they have been capable of efficiently carry out fragment fixation and anatomical discount in keeping with the pre-op planning design they made.

“Postoperative follow-up outcomes additionally confirmed that the articular floor and plateau top remained viable, and the superb price of perform was greater than that within the standard planning group,” the crew acknowledged. “Taken collectively, the outcomes recommend that 3D-printed fracture fashions facilitate the therapy of previous and complicated tibial plateau fractures by way of a extra correct and customized strategy, thus confirming its effectiveness for such a fracture.”

Nevertheless, it’s not a very foolproof plan. Utilizing 3D printing in pre-op planning isn’t low cost, and may improve hospitalization prices, and these 3D printed fashions solely show the bone form – no blood vessels, cartilage, or ligaments. Nevertheless, when mixed with MRI and vascular imaging, this difficulty could possibly be solved.

“In conclusion, pre-operative simulation utilizing a 3D printing mannequin could also be useful for the therapy of previous and complicated tibial plateau fractures, which can be conducive to the pre-operative planning and to creating the surgical process correct and customized. Nevertheless, its medical effectiveness must be additional assessed by a potential randomized-controlled examine.”

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