3D Printed Microfluidics for Silver Clay Extrusion

Emmanuel Segura-Cárdenas (Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias) and Luis Fernando Velásquez-García (MIT) element the outcomes of a latest examine in ‘Additively Manufactured Sturdy Microfluidics through Silver Clay Extrusion,’ explaining how they created a proof-of-concept microfluidic able to decomposing hydrogen peroxide.

Whereas most microfluidics are composed of silicone, such supplies are incapable of dealing with excessive temperature or stress—and they aren’t very suitable with solvents. Steel might be thought-about an acceptable alternative for the event of sturdy microfluidic gadgets, however at the moment, most of that know-how is geared towards the creation of skinny movies and wafer bonding.

“As well as, fabrication approaches reminiscent of electrical discharge micromachining [9] and micro milling [10] have been explored to implement metallic microfluidics, however these manufacturing processes are very costly, very sluggish, and require specialised tooling.”

3D Printed Microfluidics for Silver Clay Extrusion

Schematic of 3D printing course of to create metallic clay-extruded objects

Right now, microfluidics are sometimes accompanied by quite a lot of completely different 3D printing methods, featured in analysis creating new sensors, organs-on-chips, and enhancing different processes like bioprinting. Extra customary 3D printing methods like FFF have been used to develop microfluidics; nevertheless, most lack catalytic properties and might, once more, solely handle a slight quantity of stress or improve in temperature.

On this examine, the researchers endeavored to make use of metallic extrusion with clay, counting on silver clay to supply sturdy, inexpensive microfluidics. Silver clay is understood to be suitable with many various microfluidics, providing advantages reminiscent of:

Excessive thermal options
Electrical conductivity
Chemical resistance
Catalytic properties

Inexperienced and annealed samples have been fabricated for testing within the examine, with some concern over shrinkage. Whereas the authors primarily attributed that to the printing course of, they discovered the ‘mismatch between precise dimensions and supposed dimensions’ to even be attainable resulting from stress on the clay syringe, an absence of XY pixels, or high-temperature annealing.

The researchers 3D printed step pyramids in 150 μm-thick and 200 μm-thick layers. In all, 15 constructions have been 3D printed, with the group measuring them randomly in 4 factors inside every step.

“The steps have been centered across the vertical axis of the pyramid, and the separation between the perimeters of adjoining steps was set at 400 μm within the CAD information,” acknowledged the authors. “Metrology of the take a look at constructions evidences linearity between the CAD and printed in-plane options for each inexperienced and annealed constructions. On common, the scale of the inexperienced constructions are 93% the CAD values, whereas the scale of the annealed constructions are 81% the CAD values (i.e. the in-plane options of the annealed constructions shrink about 13 % from the scale of the inexperienced constructions).

“No important distinction between measurements within the X and Y instructions was discovered, though the constructions made with the coarser slicing (i.e. 200 μm layer top) have related much less measurement variation and nearer correspondence to the CAD information.”

Stair-like constructions have been additionally fabricated, measured, and characterised. Every pattern featured 9 steps on a 1 mm-thick base plate.

“In all instances, we discovered that the peak of the bottom of the printed stair construction was equal to zero.98 mm as a substitute of 1 mm, in all probability reflecting the out-of-plane offset sometimes current within the first layer printed by an FFF 3D printer,” acknowledged the authors.

3D Printed Microfluidics for Silver Clay Extrusion

Out-of-plane printed dimension vs. corresponding CAD dimension, measured earlier than and after annealing, of stairs-like take a look at constructions. Within the least-squares fittings, PD = printed dimension, CD = CAD dimension. Stable markers denote knowledge from inexperienced constructions, whereas hole markers denote knowledge from annealed constructions. Least-squares fittings of inexperienced knowledge are dashed strains, whereas least squares fittings of annealed knowledge are dotted strains.

Six lengthy, slim wire samples have been printed and annealed for characterization resistivity.

“The least-squares becoming of the info reveals a linear dependence between the size of the wire and its electrical resistance, in settlement with Ohm’s legislation,” acknowledged the authors.

3D Printed Microfluidics for Silver Clay Extrusion

Electrical resistance versus probe separation for a printed and annealed wire. Within the least-squares becoming, RW = electrical resistance, LW = wire size.

3D Printed Microfluidics for Silver Clay Extrusion

Stress vs. pressure curve of printed and annealed pattern. Within the least sq. becoming, ST = uniaxial stress, SN = pressure

In fabricating the microreactor, the researchers reported 12 minutes for printing, 4 hours for annealing, and a complete value of $25.

3D Printed Microfluidics for Silver Clay Extrusion

Experimental setup to characterize catalytic microfluidic that decomposes hydrogen peroxide.

“The microreactor operates as predicted by the reduced-order modeling, attaining 87% decomposition effectivity for five μL/min circulate fee of hydrogen peroxide with 30% w/w preliminary focus,” acknowledged the authors.

3D Printed Microfluidics for Silver Clay Extrusion

Abstract of the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by the catalytic microreactor, i.e. last hydrogen peroxide focus vs. preliminary hydrogen peroxide focus. In all instances, the circulate fee is 5 μL/min.

3D Printed Microfluidics for Silver Clay Extrusion

The ratio between last and preliminary hydrogen peroxide concentrations versus 30% w/w hydrogen peroxide circulate fee for a microchannel with 600 μm by 600 μm cross-section and a pair of.5 cm size. Full decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide is achieved at 1 μL/min flowrate.

“The experimental outcomes are in settlement with our modeling, together with the whole decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with preliminary w/w focus as much as 1.eight % and 5 μL/min circulate fee, and 87% decomposition effectivity when the preliminary hydrogen peroxide w/w focus is elevated to 30%,” concluded the researchers.

“The reported 3D printing technique is suitable with warmth switch and microreactor microfluidic functions, e.g. compact warmth exchangers, nanosatellite monopropellant rockets, and handheld steam mills for organic decontamination.”

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[Source / Images: ‘Additively Manufactured Robust Microfluidics via Silver Clay Extrusion’]


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