Bioprinting with frozen cells: multilayer cryolithography for better cell survival
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Bioprinting with Frozen Cells: Multilayer Cryolithography for Higher Cell Survival

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UC Berkeley engineers might have lastly discovered a sensible approach to 3D print human organs. Of their lately printed paper, ‘A parallel a number of layer cryolithography gadget for the manufacture of organic materials for tissue engineering,’ authors Gideon Ukpai, Joseph Sahyoun, Robert Stuart, Sky Wang, Zichen Xiao, and Boris Rubinsky clarify how they’ve been capable of pace up 3D printing with further and robotic arms working at fast pace. Excessive temperatures additionally turn into a serious quotient for cell sustainability.

Researchers at the moment could possibly extract cells and have a superb idea for manipulating them, however their fragility usually ends a promising mission earlier than it even begins. With all these points in thoughts, scientists have created a brand new system that makes use of freezing temperatures and an exponential quantity of printing energy to achieve pace in manufacturing—mainly, earlier than cells have an opportunity to die and break all the things:

“The expertise makes use of multilayer cryolithography (MLCL) to make organic merchandise sooner and in bigger portions by concurrently printing 2D layers in parallel and assembling the layers right into a 3D construction at an meeting web site, as a substitute of sequentially and linearly assembling a 3D object from particular person components as

Whereas constant temperature and chemistry are important to conserving cells alive, cryolithography right here provides a novel twist, freezing every layer—and providing a greater probability for sustainability.

“The issue with 3D bioprinting is that it’s a very gradual course of, so you’ll be able to’t print something large as a result of the organic supplies will deteriorate by the point you end,” stated Boris Rubinsky, professor of mechanical engineering and chief of the workforce that designed the gadget. “Considered one of our improvements is that we freeze the fabric as it’s being printed in order that the organic materials is preserved, and we will management the freezing charge.”

Also known as the holy grail of bioprinting, researchers see fabrication of organs as the top aim. This might prolong the lifetimes of so many sufferers at the moment ready for transplants, and sooner or later, permit docs to supply extraordinary medical remedy. With this new expertise, researchers have much more management over manufacturing, temperature, and sustainability.

“As every layer is stacked to type a 3D construction, one of many improvements we applied was to dip the 3D construction right into a cryogenic bathtub to freeze it relatively than having the bathtub fill as much as meet every layer,” stated Joseph Sahyoun (Meng ’18, ME) and co-author on the paper. “This methodology allowed us to manage the freezing charge extra precisely.”

The brand new system might translate into higher high quality within the meals preparation area additionally, because of the high-performance approach in freezing.

Robotic arm stacking layers of 2D tissues. (Picture courtesy of Gideon Ukpai, UC Berkeley)

“That is essential as a result of the scale of the ice crystals and the homogeneity of the ice crystals are a central component within the high quality of the frozen meals,” stated Boris Rubinsky, professor of mechanical engineering and co-author of the paper.

“Dysphagia is quite common among the many geriatric inhabitants. As a result of these sufferers have problem swallowing, they’re being fed meals that’s mainly mush, in order that they don’t have an urge for food, and the issue exacerbates,” stated Rubinsky. “However if you happen to can create meals with texture, this can be extra appetizing. Then as they chew, the meals will soften of their mouth to allow them to swallow and get the vitamins. Our expertise lets you do this with any form of meals.”

This new type of printing has monumental potential throughout the whole business, however particularly the realm of tissue engineering—one of many hottest areas of analysis at the moment. And whereas bioprinting is clearly making large strides for the medical area, this mission serves as yet another instance of the numerous totally different types of refinement being addressed inside 3D printing. Over the previous few years, improvements inside 3D software program, , and supplies have escalated like technological dominoes—and so they don’t appear to be stopping anytime quickly.

Researchers proceed to search out methods to maintain cells alive lengthy sufficient to efficiently engineer tissue, whether or not for fabrication within the lab of a lung, bladder, or perhaps a cellularized coronary heart. Discover out extra about how robotics is pushing 3D printing expertise additional ahead right here.

(Video courtesy of Gideon Ukpai, UC Berkeley)

[Source: Berkeley Engineering; Berkeley News]

 

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